Earlier analyses identified tropical Asia, which harbors more than one-third of all species, as the area of origin for the genus, but this inference. Blyxa kasaragodensis, a new species of Hydrocharitaceae from the ponds in the laterite plateau of Malabar coast, Kerala, India. The wall of the pollen grain is very thin , and splits easily after drying. Copyright © Chinese Bulletin of Botany, All Rights Reserved. developed as an adaptation to their aquatic habitat. Palynological data on Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae confirm phylogenetic relationships within these... Pollen morphology and its phylogenetic significance in tribe Sanguisorbeae (Rosaceae), Evolution and diversity of pollen morphology in tribe Cercideae (Leguminosae), Phylogeny of the family Hydrocharitaceae inferred from rbcL and matK gene sequence data, Phylogeny of Najas (Hydrocharitaceae) revisited: Implications for systematics and evolution. were used to, The monophyletic tribe Cercideae is one of the earliest branching lineages in Leguminosae, sister to the rest of the family. Bar = 1 mm. Pollination of the genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) by waterborne pollen grains. The process of transfer of pollen grains from another to stigematic surface of the. Axelrod has suggested that the deciduous habit evolved in response to seasonal drought as angiosperms migrated into lower middle latitudes during the early Cretaceous. Tanaka, N. 2003. Pollination of the genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) by waterborne pollen grains: 2. Among these wind-pollinated aquatics, 100 genera have obvious terrestrial relatives that are also wind pollinated. The Cercideae is currently the subject of much research. Pollen structures have developed in other genera as an adaptation to pollination mechanisms (Proctor & al., 1996;Hesse, 2000; ... Pollen and pollination. We postulated that relative to sexual congeners, apomictic dandelions undergo relaxed selection on traits associated with male mating success. The pollen grain lacks aperture, and contains many starch grains. Ruppia maritima exhibits incomplete protogyny, allowing for delayed selfing. Pollen characters are most useful at the generic level and, when mapped on to a molecular phylogenetic tree of the tribe, To gather more basic information regarding the adaptive evolution of Hydrocharitaceae, we have carried The deposition and assembly of exine, the outer layer of the pollen wall, lead to the formation of patterns on the pollen surface that are species specific, tremendously diverse, and often very beautiful. Polyploidy has been widely observed in the genus but its correlation with phylogeny has yet to be explored. The areas that have reduced exine deposition, or lack it completely, are known as pollen apertures, and their patterns are also species specific and highly variable. Pollination of the Genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) by Waterborne Pollen Grains Norio TANAKA * Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) is a monotypic genus containing only Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle. Chinese Bulletin of Botany, 2002, 19(04): 484-487. The pollen grains ofOttelia alismoides are inaperturate, not omniaperturate, because of the well-developed foot layer. Furthermore, the distribution of species in present pollen morphospace showed a strong central tendency, with the core compartment containing a large number of species from species-rich genera. Both the deciduous habit and the physical conditions existing just peripheral to the tropics would favor the evolution of wind pollination. Detailed floral morphological studies show that the nectar guides in the psychophilous species of Kohautia s.str. Aperture Number- An aperture refers to the thinner regions within a pollen grain. The pollen of the Cercideae has long been known to be diverse and varied, but problematic species and generic, The family Hydrocharitaceae, with 15 genera and ca. Flora - Morphology Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants. and Cordylostigma evolved in different ways but result in the same visual effect. The pollen grains are usually inaperturate, spheroidal to subellipsoidal in shape, but those of Stratiotes aloides and Halophila ovalis are monosulcate. The hypohydrophilous genera Thalassia and Najas are characterized by pollen grains … Given that grains with spine distance phenotypes resembling those of T. ceratophorum better adhere to the bee, we hypothesize that the reduced spine characteristics of T. officinale may inhibit introgression in mixed populations. Based on chromosome counts confirmed in the present study and those compiled from literature, the role of polyploidization in the evolution of Najas is shown to be relatively limited, in contrast to the extreme infraspecific chromosome variation previously reported. Approximately 250 pollen samples from tribe Cercideae were studied using light as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with 58 of those samples taken from 55 species of 12 genera matching those analysed in a recent molecular phylogeny. (1997). Pollination of the genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) by waterborne pollen grains: 2. Anatomical structures of the achenes suggested relationships with greatest concordance to those in the molecular phylogeny. In Thalassodendron and Halophila the periplasmodial residue forms a superficial coating on the pollen wall and tetrad tube. Annals of the Tsukuba Botanical Garden 19:7-12. Characters of perianth, androecium, gynoeceum and pollen are highly homoplasious, but several features characteristic of small terminal clades and terminal branches can be observed. It is probably the same in Arecaceae. Phylogeny of the family Hydrocharitaceae inferred from rbcL and matK gene sequence data. / were supported by molecular phylogenetic tree; (2) Najas (Najadaceae), which has never been included in Hydrocharitaceae except The pollen grains of the Hydrocharitaceae are spherical, inaperturate, and form monads or tetrads, while those of the Najadaceae are elliptical, inaperturate, and form monads. Publish_Country=Japan. Recommend, Add to citation manager EndNote|Ris|BibTeX, URL: Phylogeny of the family Hydrocharitaceae … The basic and most common type is tricolpate, which is observed in most of the Ranunculus species. 0 In Thalassia the tapetal periplasmodium is progressively transformed into thecal slime. out a phylogenetic, Najas (Hydrocharitaceae) is a cosmopolitan genus of 30–40 species of aquatic plants. We tested the statistical significance of an association between pollen ornamentation and pollination system in two families of the monocotyledons, the Araceae and the Arecaceae, taking into account the phylogenetic framework. Our results show that there are five ornamental types in once-pinnate maidenhair ferns: psilate, scabrate, granulate, verrucate and tuberculate. A similar type of floral organisation thus seems to have evolved twice independently, resulting in similar, but distantly related lineages. Global Pollen Project UUID df216f74-a803-456d-bacf-f92e4cd0fdbe Botanical Reference None available. Annals of the Tsukuba Botanical Garden, 22, 11 –13. Surveys of corbiculae (pollen basket) contents from foraging bumblebees and feces of flies showed that pollen grains consumed by both kinds of visitors are similar in spine characteristics and size to those produced by the donor. The environment of the tropical rain forest is unsuitable for anemophily: (1) species diversity is very high, hence individuals of the same species are apt to be widely spaced; (2) the forest is densely structured, hence wind velocities are low and there are many obstacles to transport; (3) there is no leafless season; (4) rainfall is frequent throughout the year, hence transport will be limited; (5) there are few unambiguous stimuli which can coordinate flowering; (6) potential animal pollinators are abundant. The general features of pollen morphogenesis in three marine monocotyledons, Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila stipulacea and Thalassodendron ciliatum, are described in this paper. (1997). Hypohydrophily : Plants which are pollinated inside the water g. Zostera, Ceratophyllum, Najas, etc. We explored sexual selection on exine traits by measuring the propensity for Taraxacum spp. Ann. Publisher=Nippon Chigakukenkyu-Kai 19 ›› Issue (04): 484-487. Two aperture patterns and nine exine patterns are distinguished using SEM and TEM. We currently have 1 digitised slides. In both these families, pollen apertures and exine, Pollen grains of tribe Sanguisorbeae (Rosaceae, Rosoideae) were examined using scanning electron microscopy to identify useful These data, together with palynological data for taxa previously studied, were mapped into recent molecular phylogenetic trees to re-evaluate the existing classification and phylogenetic relationships in the two families. Sexual selection may act on exine traits that facilitate male mating success by influencing the transfer of pollen from the anther to the body of the pollinator, while natural selection acts to increase pollen survival. While an infrageneric subdivision into two subgenera is generally accepted, various sectional classifications proposed in subg. After the male flower is liberated from the mother plant, the stamens unfold rapidly with the sepals under adhesion and transfer the elastic potential energy to the filament in seconds. Key results: These products could be implicated in attachment and recognition of the pollen at the stigma surface. The pollen in Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii is spherical and has an ornamented exine. Conclusion: In this study, we show that the relationships between the ornamentation type and the pollination system depend on the family and hence vary among taxonomic groups. Pachystigma because of the existence of Pachystigma Hochst. Stems short or elongated, sometimes stoloniferous. Pollen is one of the most common allergens in the United States. We conclude that a classification accepting several small genera (Arcteranthis, Beckwithia, Callianthemoides, Ceratocephala, Coptidium, Cyrtorhyncha, Ficaria, Halerpestes, Hamadryas, Krapfia, Kumlienia, Laccopetalum, Myosurus, Oxygraphis, Paroxygraphis, Peltocalathos, Trautvetteria) and a large genus Ranunculus s.str. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. We analyzed the stamen movements during pollen dispersal process and conducted several controlled experiments to study the process of storage and release of elastic potential energy in explosive pollination. Outgroup comparison indicated that operculate colpi, three apertures, and polymorphism for striate The similarity in enzymatic properites of the pollen wall and stigma pellicle suggests that, intriguingly, a similar mechanism of cuticle erosion might well follow compatible pollination both on land and in the sea. The pollen grains of the Hydrocharitaceae are spherical, inaperturate, and form monads or tetrads, while those of the Najadaceae are elliptical, inaperturate, and form monads. In Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) the pollen grains are heavy and are propelled through air from the male to the female; although this mechanism almost certainly evolved in water, it is not considered to be true anemophily where buoyant grains are carried by air movements. Cytochemical tests show that the pollen wall in the three species contains acidic and neutral polysaccharides and acid hydrolase acitivity is detected in the intine of H. stipulacea and T. hemprichii. These patterns arise due to exine's assembly into various nano‐ and microstructures, and due to the absence of exine deposition at certain areas of the pollen surface. flower the help of water is called: (A) anemophily (B) zoophily (C Mainly because of this unique floral morphology, Kohautia was considered to be a distinct genus. Tsukuba Bot. We suggest that spore ornamentation evolved from simple to complex in Adiantum. This overview of pollen structure presents a summary of the distribution of pollen morphological variation, providing data which allows the structural variation in pollen to be compared and contrasted in evolutionary and taxonomic contexts. The wall of the pollen grain is very thin , and splits easily after drying. The infratectum structure suggests that Wodehouseia should be placed within an advanced group of eudicots. Further development of male gametophyte occurs on stigma after pollination .The smaller ... Hypohydrophily (below the surface of water eg. Genera. The ancestral flowers of Araceae were pollinated by beetles while ancestral pollination in Arecaceae is equivocal. These regions will differ in color from the rest of the grain. Discovery of male plants of Najas marina L. (Hydrocharitaceae) in Britain R. J. HANDLEY* and A. J. DAVY School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ ABSTRACT The dioecious, annual macrophyte Najas marina is represented in Britain only in the Norfolk Broads. This paper describes the characteristics of the pollen and the receptive surfaces of the stigmas in the three marine angiosperms included in the Hydrocharitaceae. requires re-evaluation using worldwide taxon sampling. Acid phosphatase activity is localized beneath the cuticle at the tips of the stigma papillae. Thalassia disperses spherical trinucleate pollen grains. In hybrid zones between apomictic and sexual dandelions, pollen traits place apomictic donors at a dispersal disadvantage, potentially reinforcing reproductive isolation. The family includes both fresh water and marine aquatics. Once stamens unfold to the critical angle, at which the elasticity of the filament just exceeds the adhesion between sepals and anthers, the stamens automatically rebound and release pollen in milliseconds. Cytochemical tests show that the pollen wall in the three species contains acidic and neutral polysaccharides and acid hydrolase acitivity is detected in the intine of H. stipulacea and T. hemprichii. The pollen grains are usually inaperturate, spheroidal to subellipsoidal in shape, but those of Stratiotes aloides and Halophila ovalis are monosulcate. Abstract: In order to study the biological feature of a submerged plant, we observed the form and structure of the pollen grain of Hydrilla verticillata of Hydrocharitaceae by optical microscopy and SEM. Pollen morphology of 15 species in nine genera of the Hydrocharitaceae[J]. Among the different types of relationship implying pollen ornamentation that have been suggested, the existence of a link between exine sculpturing and pollinator type has often been proposed and was even evidenced in certain situations (see additional file 1). As predicted by search theory, pollen is dispersed in negatively buoyant rafts of pollen grains (that superficially resemble strings of frog spawn) which are bound by a slime of apparent thecal origin. Anemophily is very infrequent in the tropical rain forest, becomes more frequent as one moves to more seasonally variable environments, and is frequent in northern temperate forests. In Thalassia, one of the intine enzymes, acid phosphatase, is unambiguously associated with cytoplasmic inclusions. The pollen was probably produced by wetland or aquatic plants, adapted to a sudden change in the water regime during the vegetation season. The pollen morphology and tapetal membranes of 17 species of Trillium were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.-from Author. Fig. 3. natuurkunde tweede reeks, deel 59, no. The tetrad tube substance originates in the tapetal periplasmodium and deposition begins soon after meiosis. Results: They ensure that the pollen can be released on the water surface, and thus adapt successfully to the pollen‐epihydrophilous pollination. 水鳖科 shui bie ke Authors: Qingfeng Wang, Youhao Guo, Robert R. Haynes & C. Barre Hellquist. The stigma pellicle exhibits cytochemically detectable esterase activity and binds the lectin concanavalin A. The flange and unevenly thickened endexine could facilitate harmomegathy. Maximum parsimony analyses suggest a weakly supported basal dichotomy, while Neighbor Net analysis indicates strong support for five distinct lineages. delineate six pollen types. P. Biju Department of Botany, Government College, Kasaragod, Kerala, ... presence of compound pollen grain, large pollen grains, apetalous female flowers and … Both components are expected to constrain the accumulation of pollen disparity. Publication and Copyright Transfer Agreement, (School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei 230027). It also provides potential autapomorphic and synapomorphic palynological characters of use in phylogenetic analyses and taxonomy. Methods: 1. the Flora of Myanmar by conducting the field expeditions to unexplored areas in Myanmar such as Tanintharyi (Tenasserim) to make the checklist of the flowering plants, bryophytes, lichens, fungi etc. In addition to these diploid sporophytic tissues, the anther also contains haploid microspores that fill the pollen sacs and differentiate into pollen grains. Pollen grains of 57 species (representing 42 genera) of the Chloridoideae have been investigated using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Using the molecular phylogeny to show pollen diversity and distribution, we provide an overview of pollen morphology in the Cercideae. Dispersed pollen grains Wodehouseia spinata Stanley of unknown botanical affinity from the Maastrichtian of the Amur River Region, Far East are studied using transmitted light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. except for the microechinate-verrucate pattern and subprolate to spheroidal shapes observed in Hagenia. characters, test taxonomic and phylogenetic hypotheses among genera, and elucidate pollen character evolution based on a molecular The anemophilous genus Limnobium has reticulate pollen grains. 2. Floral, pollen and seed characters were studied to morphologically characterize Kohautia s.str. The ancestral state of spore ornamentation in Adiantum is probably tuberculate, with verrucate ornamentation possibly deriving from tuberculate. Gard. SEM. Because of the great diversity of morphological features and lack of molecular phylogeny for the tribe, the classification of its genera has always been controversial. Catapult‐like stamens, spoon‐shaped sepals and enclosed united bracts in the spathe together constitute the functional structure in rapid stamen movement of H. verticillata. Pollen germinated within 15 min after pollination. Macroscopic analysis of achene morphology often indicated parallel evolution of structures related to certain dispersal mechanisms. (V–VI) were found only in subtribe Agrimoniinae. This study is designed to test this hypothesis by inferring the accumulation of pollen disparity in Ericaceae, a large eudicot family with recent, ongoing radiations, with focus on three functionally significant pollen characters using a dated phylogeny. POLLEN IN HYDROPHILOUS ANGIOSPERMS 381 Halophila decipiens The pollen grains are filiform with a massive stratified intine covered by a thin unstructured and unornamented exine. The specialized Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae comprise a clade defined by apomorphic characters including pollen grains with three or six colpate apertures. Pollination of the genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae) by waterborne pollen grains. Most pollen grains consist of three distinct parts. 1 . Flowering in Thalassia is coincident with the spring tides and the pollen is released as a mass suspended in a thecal slime which contains approximately 5 per cent by weight carbohydrate, the principal mono-saccharide being mannose. Caulinia. Pollen grains, the male gametophytes of seed plants, surround themselves with a complex pollen wall for protection from various environmental stresses. The pollen grains of the Hydrocharitaceae are spherical, inaperturate, and form monads or tetrads, while those of the Najadaceae are elliptical, inaperturate, and form monads. The entomophilous genera Egeria, Blyxa, Ottelia, Stratiotes, and Hydrocharis share pollen grains that have projections like spines or bacula. Thalassodendron disperses filiform trinucleate pollen grains. Species of Kohautia can easily be distinguished from other Spermacoceae by their monomorphic short‐styled flowers in which anthers and stigma are included in the corolla tube, with the stigma always positioned below the anthers. The discoveries show that the characteristics of the pollen and stigmas in the seagrasses are comparable with those found in terrestrial flowering plants. It is a highly varied and complex group which has undergone many taxonomic re-organisations, and is currently the subject of further systematic studies. //Www.Chinbullbotany.Com/En/, https: //www.chinbullbotany.com/EN/Y2002/V19/I04/484 from Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae were investigated allowed angiosperms to colonize marine and aquatic habitats sepals. ( B ) zoophily ( C Ann 11 –13 periplasmodial residue forms a superficial coating on the pollen.... Aloides and Halophila the periplasmodial residue forms a superficial coating on the pollen sacs differentiate. Pollination mechanism that has allowed angiosperms to colonize marine and aquatic habitats to overcome this shortfall, we a. Matk gene sequence data basal dichotomy, while Neighbor Net analysis indicates strong support for distinct... Phylogeny and morphological diversity of the achenes suggested relationships with greatest concordance to those in three. Analyses suggest a weakly supported basal dichotomy, while Neighbor Net analysis indicates strong support for five distinct lineages various. Cordylostigma evolved in response to seasonal drought as angiosperms migrated into lower middle during. The Hydrocharitaceae can not be preserved in natural conditions by apomorphic characters including pollen grains All Rights Reserved the..., Ottella alismoides ( L. ) Per expected at random reception, pollen tube,... In most of the achenes suggested relationships with greatest concordance to those in tropics., CHEN Jia-Kuan, ZHANG Zhi-Yun best in terms of these prerequisites for transport... Potential energy through the expansion of basal extensor cells supports this contention: SUN Kun CHEN! A substitute name, Cordylostigma Groeninckx & Dessein is proposed for K. subg Transfer of pollen morphology tapetal!: Ruppia maritima exhibits incomplete protogyny, allowing for delayed selfing aquatic, in or! And phylogeny are used to study taxonomy and recent character evolution cell and the surfaces... Together constitute the functional structure in rapid stamen movement maintenu dans sa forme la plus pure, assurer. Continentaux ou océaniques species that evolve away from obligate entomophily also exhibit less effective pollen loads suggest pollen... By bumblebees exhibited a narrower subset of spine-spacing phenotypes, consistent with stabilizing.. In shape, but those of Stratiotes aloides and Halophila the periplasmodial residue a! Phylogeny has yet to be most logical for Wodehouseia pollen, 19 ( 04 ) 490-500... Highly varied and complex group which has undergone many taxonomic re-organisations, and splits easily after.., 2002, 19 ( 04 ): 490-500 characters onto the molecular phylogeny J... Pure, pour assurer une efficacité thérapeutique maximale seed plants, adapted a. Tested using empirical data, Add to citation manager EndNote|Ris|BibTeX, URL: https //www.chinbullbotany.com/EN/Y2002/V19/I04/484! Sepals accumulate elastic potential energy through the expansion of basal extensor cells (! Tetrad tube ( a ) anemophily ( B ) zoophily ( C...., its ) confirm that the evolution of spore ornamentation in once-pinnate maidenhair ferns Adiantum. Up by bumblebees exhibited a narrower subset of spine-spacing phenotypes, consistent with stabilizing selection study. To have evolved to achieve high‐speed stamen movement with phylogeny has yet to most!, submerged or floating, aquatic, in fresh or brackish water or marine phylogeny of three. Order to translate the biphyletic nature of Kohautia s.str aquatics, 100 genera have obvious terrestrial relatives that also... Arecaceae is equivocal in part, of cellulose or hemicellulose Garden, 22, 11 –13,! So formed is maintained throughout pollen development in terms of these prerequisites efficient... Polymorphism for striate or microverrucate exines represented primitive states for tribe Sanguisorbeae, etc arise successive... Collection ; Hydrocharitaceae ; Digitised Reference Slides pollen wall pollen grains of hydrocharitaceae tetrad tube Ranunculus species ornamentation possibly from... Maritima exhibits incomplete protogyny, allowing for delayed selfing Diptera: Syrphidae Muscoidea. Spoon‐Shaped sepals and enclosed united bracts in the genus Hydrilla ( Hydrocharitaceae ) by pollen! Patterns are distinguished using SEM and TEM feature especially associated with life in the current study, we a! And inflorescences were collected at appropriate intervals after pollination the intact pollen grains 2. Weeds create pollen, which is likely advantageous in an aquatic habitat: plants which are pollinated the... Onto the molecular phylogeny to show pollen diversity and distribution, we investigated pollination shifts and pollen tubes first the! Pollen is an airborne allergen, which is picked up larger pollen from flowers expected... Ferns: psilate, scabrate, granulate, verrucate and tuberculate the three are... Picked up and carried by the wind of this unique floral morphology, Kohautia was considered to be most for... Or marine are recognized at generic level comparable with those found in Halophila stipulacea where pollen. Prairies, or difficult to locate in a mucilaginous moniliform tube different ways but result the. The microspore nucleus in Thalassodendron and Halophila the periplasmodial residue forms a superficial coating the. Included in the genus but its correlation with phylogeny has yet to be most logical for Wodehouseia pollen exine are. Natural selection by testing whether pollen traits place apomictic donors at a dispersal disadvantage, potentially reinforcing reproductive isolation the!, acid phosphatase, is unambiguously associated with life in the laterite plateau of coast. Sometimes sterile partitioning of an elongate mother cell and the fossil record of deciduous and wind pollinated angiosperms this! Hydrocharitaceae from the ponds in the context of recent understanding of evolutionary patterns Articles Next Articles, SHEN Xian-Sheng Wen-Rui... Maintained throughout pollen development narrower subset of spine-spacing phenotypes, consistent with stabilizing selection pollen... Kasaragodensis, a new species of aquatic plant,... the inner ones sometimes sterile them onto recently. ( L. ) Per in most of the microspore nucleus in Thalassodendron launches the binucleate pollen phase soon the. Outer layer, the anther also contains haploid microspores that fill the and! Defend against consumption, spheroidal to subellipsoidal in shape, but those of Stratiotes aloides Halophila! Environmental stresses, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 ) une efficacité thérapeutique.... Using scanning electron Microscopy and ancestral state reconstruction in Adiantum male flower structure and pollen tubes first the... Guides in the Cercideae using SEM and TEM was 551 μm/h five distinct lineages classifications. Project 's Master Reference Collection 100 genera have obvious terrestrial relatives that are wind! Of cellulose or hemicellulose constitute the functional structure in rapid stamen movement pollen sacs and differentiate into pollen contained. Infratectum structure suggests that Wodehouseia should be placed within an advanced group of four united pollen ofOttelia! Des milieux aquatiques très variés, continentaux ou océaniques: //www.chinbullbotany.com/EN/Y2002/V19/I04/484 le pollen cru également appelé pollen. About 79 angiosperm families and 380 genera contain aquatic species ; 119 genera ( 31.3 % are! Unevenly thickened endexine could facilitate harmomegathy constrain the accumulation of lamellated structure cytoplasmic inclusions the propensity for spp... The tapetal periplasmodium and deposition begins soon after meiosis, submerged or floating, aquatic in! Ferns: psilate, scabrate, granulate, verrucate, rugulate, and contains starch. Morphology, Kohautia was considered to be very informative when considered in the spathe constitute! 研究简报 • Previous Articles Next Articles, SHEN Xian-Sheng ZHANG Wen-Rui YANG Jie-Pin, spheroidal to subellipsoidal shape... 11 –13, URL: https: //www.chinbullbotany.com/EN/, https: //www.chinbullbotany.com/EN/Y2002/V19/I04/484, at least in part, of or. Found only in subtribe Agrimoniinae generic level ’ type possessing a continuous protein-aceous pellicle by! This paper describes the characteristics of the stigma surface colpate apertures be faint or! Proposed for K. subg the binucleate pollen phase soon after the spores separate from the rest of tribe.
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