Antipater was found guilty by Varus; however, due to Antipater's high rank, it was necessary for Caesar Augustus to approve of the recommended sentence of death. Antipater was married to Cypros, a Nabataean noblewoman. Unlike Graves, however, Raymond specifies that Mary was actually the unnamed daughter of Antigonus who would later become Antipater's wife. ), came from Idumea (also called Edom), a region by the southern coast of the Dead Sea. More information about Herod the Great can be found in Matthew 2:1-22 and Luke 1:5. Ï á¼Î½ÏÎ¯ÏÎ±ÏÏÎ¿Ï, HÄrÇdÄs Antipatros; born before 20 BC â died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament, although he never held the title of king. Harpswell, ME: Brunswick Press. After the guilty verdict, Antipater's position as exclusive successor was removed and granted to Herod Antipas. Antipater I the Idumaean (born 113 or 114 BCE, died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. , when Roman Emperor Julius Caesar (100â44 B.C.E. ) Herod was born in southern Palestine. Herod.  He devised multiple assassination attempts which Antipater evaded, but successfully bribed one of Hyrcanus’ cup-bearers to poison and kill Antipater.. Herod Antipas is arguably most famous for beheading John the Baptist. was appointed procurator of Judea. Personal details. Antipas was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch (âruler of a quarterâ) and is referred to as both âHerod the Tetrarchâ and âKing Herodâ in the New Testament although he never held the title of king. ", We know two of Antipater's wives through the writings of Josephus. Aristobulus (son of Mariamne the Queen) left these infants when he was slain by his fatherâ¦but when they were arrived at the age of puberty, this Herod, (the eldest son), married Mariamne, the daughter of Olympias, who was the daughter of Herod the king, and of Joseph the son of Joseph who was brother to Herod the king, and had by her a son, Aristobulusâ¦Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.V.4 Antipater II or Antipas ANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 B.C.E. "The Dusk of Judea and the Dawn of a New Dynasty."  Josephus explains this rendering by critiquing its author: Nicolaus wrote to please Herod and would do so at the cost of truthfulness.  This appeal persuaded Caesar who then appointed Antipater the first Roman Procurator of Judea. She was the daughter of Antigonus the Hasmonean, the last Hasmonean king who also served as high priest. Herod I (the Great) was son of Antipater and made king by the Romans in 40 B.C. Aristobulus impatiently provoked a political offense that brought Pompey to appoint Hyrcanus the ethnarch of Judea. Antipaterâs son Herod appealed to Rome for aid, and was appointed king of Judaea in 40 B.C. ANTIPATER (abridged form, Antipas): Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favor of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power. The son of Herod the Great was Herod Antipas (or Antipater), who was referred to as Herod the tetrarch (Matthew 14:1; Luke 3:1). Antípatros; c. 46 â 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Antipater's work as power-broker between the Hasmoneans, the Arabians, and the Romans inaugurated dramatic dynamics and steep changes in the history of the Jewish nation.  Josephus writes that he was a man of great authority among the Idumeans, both wealthy and born into a dignified family. Together they attacked Aristobulus in Jerusalem, and there was a great upheaval that drew the attention of the Roman magistrate Pompey assigned to the eastern Mediterranean province. Herod Antipater, better known as Antipas, was granted the right to rule Galilee and Perea. Concerning Antipater's execution following on the heel of Herod's executions a couple of years before of his sons Alexander and Aristobulus, it would be recounted in the compendium Saturnalia (compiled by Macrobius) that Augustus remarked "It is better to be Herod's pig than his son. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Antipater was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become king of Judaea. Herod the Great's Story .  Indeed, it is clear in the various forms of assistance that Antipater provides to both Hyrcanus II, brother of Aristobulus, and the Romans, that he possessed great resources, and brilliant military and political capabilities.. 24. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.  He arranged for Hyrcanus to come under the protection of the Arabian King Aretas III in Petra. Eldest son of Herod the Great and of the Idumean Doris, who soon after Antipater's birth was discarded by her husband; born about 38 B.C. Hyrcanus agreed to retire from public life. A native of Edom, southeast of Judah between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which under the Romans came to be known as Idumaea, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judah in the name of Roman Republic. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. Hyrcanus threatened that any Idumaean who wished to maintain their land would need to be circumcised and enter into the traditions of the Jews.  He established order by tempering civil disturbances in Judea and threatening to become a "severe master instead of a gentle governor" should the people grow seditious and unruly. , But hearing these words, Herod, King of the Jews within the two years in length between, Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 1:2; see. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998, p.109. Josephus states that Antipater I belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. Josephus records that she was at the palace with Doris, Antipater's mother, in support of her husband during his trial before Varus in 5 BC. The word tetrarch signifies that one who governs a fourth part of a kingdom. He acquired great influence because of his father's position. Africanus ascribes Antipater's Idumaean character to a raid by the people during which Antipater was kidnapped, and following his father's failure to pay ransom, he was taken down to Idumaea proper where he was raised in the teachings of Judaism. At that time Jerusalem was occupied by Parthian troops, fighting on behalf of the anti-Roman Jews. When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, as Judah became known to the Romans, with the right to collect taxes. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much â¦ When Julius Caesar and Pompey went to battle in Egypt, Pompey was killed, so Antipater in 47 BCE shifted his allegiance to Caesar, and indeed ingratiated himself with Caesar. In this conflict, the Roman general Pompey intervened in Hyrcanus' favor. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater i, and father of *Herod. As such, in a polemic against Herod to discredit him in the eyes of the Romans as unfit to become king of the Jews, Antigonus the Hasmonean is quoted by Josephus as referring to Herod as "no more than a private man, and an Idumean, i.e. The marriage served to strengthen the position of Antipater among Herod's many sons as future King of the Jews. He was poisoned in 43 B.C. Antipater in Jewish Legend. , Hyrcanus proved ineffective as either an administrator, or more importantly, as tax collector. AntÃpatros; c. 46 â 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris.  Josephus acknowledges Herod as being "by birth a Jew" and Antipater as being "of the same people" with the Jews. 46 BC â 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. If you enjoyed our bible study, we would love to hear from you, you can use our contact page for any comments or suggestions. Antipas ruled from Herod the Great’s death in either 4BC or 1 BC 1 until he was deposed by Caligula in AD 39. His mother, Cypros, was from Nabataea, a wealthy kingdom in Jordan that included the city of Petra.A Roman force led by a general named Pompey waged a military campaign in the eastern Mediterranean in 63 B.C. Antipater married Cypros, a Nabataean noblewoman, which helped endear the Nabateans to him. However, he was recalled following Mariamne's fall in 29 BC and in 13 BC Herod made him his first heir in his will. Hayes, John H., and Sara R. Mandell (1998). Neither of these genealogies are accepted by scholars. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. For the country, see, Roman procurator and appointments of sons, Kokkinos, Nikos. The Herodian Dynasty: Origins, Role In Society and Eclipse. , Although Antipater saved Malichus' life a second time from a different ruler, Malichus continued to despise Antipater and seek his murder. "Cypros" redirects here. He had served as governor of Edom during the reign of King Alexander Jaeneus and Queen Alexandra Salome of Judah during the Hasmonean dynasty. Herod’s Father, Antipater laid the foundations for his Son’s future. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. However, he was recalled following Mariamne's fall in 29 BC and in 13 BC Herod made him his first heir in his will. Herod the Great After the death of his father Antipater, Herod the Great (still governor of Galilee) established a close relationship with Mark Antonyâone of the renowned ringleaders of Julius Caesarâs assassination. He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. , In Robert Graves' King Jesus, Graves puts forth the idea that Antipater secretly married Mary, who was of a royal Jewish line. He managed to keep hold of his throne in the face of the many changes in the government at Rome.  Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to fear that King Aristobulus would not retain him in this position. , After the assassination of Julius Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Cassius against Mark Antony. How During Antipater's Abode At Rome, Herod Brought Alexander And Aristobulus Before Caesar And Accused Them. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater produced the Herodian dynasty; he paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who married the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endeared himself to Rome, and usurped the Judean throne to become king of Judea under Roman influence. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the governors of Jerusalem and Galilee, respectively. , Instead Josephus explains that Antipater's family converted to Judaism during the forced conversions by the Sadducee-influenced Hasmonean leader John Hyrcanus (r. 134-104 BCE). "Herod: king of the Jews and friend of the Romans." Because he trusted Herod, Antony set things in motion to install Herod in Judea in place of its current ruler, Antigonus. According to this writer, Idumean robbers attacked Ascalon, and plundered a shrine of Apollo, taking with them the son of the temple-attendant Herod, because he was too poor to redeem his son Antipater. However, in 5 BC Antipater was brought before Publius Quinctilius Varus, then Roman governor of Syria, charged with the intended murder of his father Herod. "The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity." Soon after Hyrcanus succeeded his widowed mother as ruler and took the office of the high priest, he was immediately attacked by his brother and surrendered. Antipater (ca.  After Hyrcanus stepped down, Antipater persuaded him to contend against his brother for his rightful position, and even convinced the unsuspecting and reluctant Hyrcanus that his younger brother intended to kill him. Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favor of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power. The prophet had been publicly criticizing him for divorcing his first wife, the daughter of the Nabatean king, Aretas IV, in order to marry Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip I3 (Mt 14:1-5; Josephus Antiquities 18.5.1). How During Antipater's Abode at Rome, Herod Brought Alexander and ..... CHAPTER 4. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater I, and father of * Herod. He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus (Herod's sons by Mariamne) rose in the royal succession in 12 BC, and even became exclusive successor to the throne after their execution in 7 BC (with Herod II in second place). Some time later, we read of the infamous event. Due to his loyalty to Rome and reliability as a statesman, he was placed in charge of Judea, with responsibilities and privileges that included mediating civil disturbance and tax collecting. Antipater's schemes came to nothing, however, for one of the last acts of Herod's life was an order to execute Antipater, who had instigated the murder of his half brothers and conspired to poison his father. Antipater, Herod’s eldest son, whom he had executed for conspiring to kill him, ruled with his father during the final few years of Herod’s reign. Herod the Great's Story . First was his niece Mariamne III, daughter of Aristobulus IV. Per Africanus, Antipater was a hierodule of Apollo at a temple in Ashkelon where his father served as priest. Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. Antipater I the Idumaean[a] (born 113 or 114 BCE, died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. Antipater had great influence in Israel and Judea during the period of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and Pompey the Great. He died by poison. For his "demonstrations of valor" Caesar elevated Antipater to Roman citizenship, freed him from taxes, and showered him with honors and declarations of friendship. Richardson, Peter (1996). Once the sentence had approval from Augustus in 4 BC, Antipater was then executed, and Archelaus (from the marriage with Malthace) was made heir in his father's will as king over Herod's entire kingdom (with Antipas and Philip as Tetrarchs over certain territories). This wife of Antipater was also a first cousin of Mariamne I, renowned royal wife of Herod the Great. Herod’s father, Antipater, owed his early power to his Nabataean connections and sponsorship by the Pharisees, a Jewish religious group composed of laymen and scribes who emerged as a …  This amity allowed the Jews a special degree of protection and freedom to govern themselves and enjoy Rome's good will. Though historians understand that Antipater's family converted to Judaism in the second century BCE, different stories had circulated in the wake of his sons coming to power. When Cassius came to Syria to collect troops, he began to demand harsh tributes, so much so that some entire cities and city curators were sold into slavery. Antipater was able to insinuate himself into a position of influence, and soon exercised the authority that ostensibly belonged to Hyrcanus as high priest. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.  However, Antipater saved Malichus from death by expending one hundred talents of his own and placating Cassius’ anger. Herod's attempt to humiliate Alexander by restoring to honor Antipater, an older son by another wife, resulted disastrously. Josephus states that Antipater i belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. His father, Antipater, was an Edomite (a Semitic people, identified by some scholars as Arab, who converted to Judaism in the 2nd century bce ). Antipater was killed by his father five days before Herod's own death according to Josephus. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. He defended himself with a history of unfailing loyalty to the Romans.  The second was a high-ranking Hasmonean princess whose first name is lost to history. (3) Antipater the father of Herod the Great. Herod was born 73 B.C., and he is first mentioned as governor of Galilee (Jos., “Ant.”, XIV, ix, 2).  Author Joseph Raymond supports this hypothesis as a fact.  Claiming a heritage among the Jews from as early as the Babylonian captivity provides credibility for a pro-Roman and Hellenized Herod as a King over the Jews, for they were highly contemptuous of him. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. Herod was born 73 B.C., and he is first mentioned as governor of Galilee (Jos., âAnt.â, XIV, ix, 2). According to Africanus and Epiphanius, he was the son of Herod (I) of Ascalon. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 5:2. http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-17.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_(son_of_Herod_the_Great)&oldid=992391830, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 01:07. Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to â¦ Antipater laid the foundation for Herod's ascension to the throne of Judea partly through his activities in the court of the Hasmoneans, the heirs of the Maccabees, who were the hereditary leaders of the Jews, and partly by currying favor with the Romans, who were growing more involved and dominant over the region at this time. However, in 5 BC Antipater was brought before Publius Quinctilius Varus, then Roman governor of Syria, charged with the intended murder of his father Herod.Antipater was found guilty by Varus; however, due to Antipater's high rank, it was necessary for Caesar Augustus to approve of the recommended sentence of death. Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. Antipaterâs father, and many other Idumeans, had been forcibly converted to Judaism under the regime of the Hasmonean High Priest John Hyrcanus I. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwesternâ¦. A legitimate dispersion such as this would shroud the fact that Herod's ancestry is undocumented in the meticulous records of returned Jewish families. According to Sextus Julius Africanus, Antipater's father was named Herod, not Antipas, Epiphanius of Salamis furthered this claim by writing Antipas was in fact the father of this Herod. Herod III Antipater (born prior to 20BC; 4BC â 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, and was the son of Herod I the Great (c. 4 BC/1AD). According to Graves, a pregnant Mary is compelled to pretend to marry an old, pious carpenter, Joseph, to protect herself and the unborn Jesus. Herod had a son whose name was Antipater.  Josephus notes that with his newfound rights and honors, Antipater immediately began to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem that Pompey had destroyed when subduing Aristobulus.  Antipater recognized Rome's growing dominance in the region and exploited it to his advantage. Herod was born 73 BCE as the son of a man from Idumea named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik.  They demonstrate the tensions that existed between the Jewish people and the powerful Edomites who appear at this time. Click here to view or print the above bible study Herod the Great â Father of the Herodian Family . Herod the Great, the son of Antipater, who supported Hyrcanus II against Aristobulus II with the aid first of the Nabataean Arabs and then of Rome. Herod Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, is not mentioned in the New Testament, but ten of his descendants played major roles in the lives of Jesusand of the â¦  Antipater also had a brother named Phalion, who was killed in battle against Aristobulus at Papyron. a half Jew".. Josephus presents two opposing reasons, one which would help secure Hyrcanus against the rising threat of Herod, and the other being his desire to quickly dispose of Hyrcanus and take power himself. At the time of Mariamne's death, Herod had nine other â¦ Schiffman, Lawrence H., "Judea Under Roman Rule", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_the_Idumaean&oldid=994440011, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He would doubtless have been every bit as much of a threat to the Lord as his evil sire, had he succeeded his wicked father to the throne. , Although Pompey and his lieutenant Scaurus initially ruled in Aristobulus’ favor when the brothers brought their case forward, on the third intervention Pompey ordered the brothers to wait.  The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence. Herod's grandfather and father held prominent political offices in Judea and established close relations with the Romans, the unquestioned world power during that time. Herod was born of this union in 73 BCE. He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus(Herod's sons by Mariamne) roâ¦ His father Herod the Great divided his large kingdom into four parts and bequeathed them to his sons, an action confirmed by the Roman senate. by one whose life he had twice saved. This time was of the Arabian King Aretas III in Petra the area between the Sea. The tensions that existed between the Jewish people and the Dawn of a kingdom, it known... Gulf of Aqaba writings of Josephus 's wife to keep hold of his throne in the before!, one of two princes who struggling to become King of Judaea ] They demonstrate tensions! Is first mentioned as governor of Galilee ( Jos., `` Ant at a temple in Ashkelon where his five. Were finally calm for a time his throne in the time before Christ Herod... Another wife, resulted disastrously 100â44 B.C.E. Pheroras, and Sara Mandell... The Hasmonean Dynasty. wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of noble. Wife of Herod the Great can be found in Matthew 2:1-22 and Luke 1:5 area. Princess whose first name is lost to history in 40 B.C appointed Antipater the Idumaean a. And made King by the Romans. to side with Cassius against Antony. Was an adherent of Hyrcanus, one of two princes who struggling to become King of the cruel... Alexander and Aristobulus before Caesar and Accused Them a father and a grand-father by the name of Antipater. 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